Cattierite (CoS2) and vaesite (NiS2) are similar in their structure and belong also to the pyrite group. Brassy cubic crystals in aggregates resembling balls to 5mm in a large pocket on white Dolomite. [19], During the early years of the 20th century, pyrite was used as a mineral detector in radio receivers, and is still used by crystal radio hobbyists. [citation needed], In modern coal mines, limestone dust is sprayed onto the exposed coal surfaces to reduce the hazard of dust explosions. These consequences derive from the crystal electric field active at the sulfur lattice site, which causes a polarisation of S ions in the pyrite lattice. Bravoite is not a formally recognised mineral, and is named after the Peruvian scientist Jose J. Bravo (1874–1928).[39]. Pyrite is paramagnetic, magnetic in the presence of applied magnetic fields, and can be used as a semiconductor.

For detailed physical properties, see sulfide mineral. Deposits of copper-bearing pyrite are widely distributed and often of great size. This weathering produces a characteristic yellow-brown stain or coating, such as on rusty quartz. [33], In the first bonding sphere, the Fe atoms are surrounded by six S nearest neighbours, towards six of the eight faces of a distorted octahedron. Marcasite also possesses homoatomic anion pairs, but the arrangement of the metal and diatomic anions is different from that of pyrite.

Here, the parameter u should be regarded as a free atomic parameter that takes different values in different pyrite-structure compounds (iron pyrite FeS2: u(S) = 0.385[35]). The name comes from the Greek word pyr, “fire,” because pyrite emits sparks when struck by metal. When…. [27][28] A single Galena crystal 1.4cm showing octahedral forms surrounded by golden Pyrite cubes to 4mm. – IndexBox", "Voltage-induced ferromagnetism in a diamagnet", "Production of Quasi-2D Platelets of Non-Layered Iron Pyrite (FeS, "The structure of some crystals as indicated by their diffraction of X-rays", The Structural and Ornamental Stones of Minnesota, A Material Odor Mystery Over Foul-Smelling Drywall, PYRITE and Your House, What Home-Owners Should Know, Homeowners in protest over pyrite damage to houses, Devastating 'pyrite epidemic' hits 20,000 newly built houses, Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road construction, Educational article about the famous pyrite crystals from the Navajun Mine,, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles needing additional references from January 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pale brass-yellow reflective; tarnishes darker and iridescent. Pyrite and marcasite commonly occur as replacement pseudomorphs after fossils in black shale and other sedimentary rocks formed under reducing environmental conditions. Aug 30, 2020, New Minerals  Bravoite is a nickel-cobalt bearing variety of pyrite, with > 50% substitution of Ni2+ for Fe2+ within pyrite. [52] Pyrite weathers rapidly to hydrated iron oxide, goethite, or limonite; pseudomorphs of goethite after pyrite are common. It has been suggested that the presence of both gold and arsenic is a case of coupled substitution but as of 1997 the chemical state of the gold remained controversial. [29], From the perspective of classical inorganic chemistry, which assigns formal oxidation states to each atom, pyrite is probably best described as Fe2+S22−. Ex. It is isoelectronic with a chlorine atom, also undergoing pairing to form Cl2 molecules. The color has also led to the nicknames brass, brazzle, and Brazil, primarily used to refer to pyrite found in coal. Updates? In value terms, China ($47 million) constitutes the largest market for imported unroasted iron pyrites worldwide, making up 65% of global imports. Both low spin Fe2+ and the disulfide S22− moeties are closed shell entities, explaining the diamagnetic and semiconducting properties. Pyrite detectors occupied a midway point between galena detectors and the more mechanically complicated perikon mineral pairs. Sep 25, 2020, New Minerals  Nodules of pyrite have been found in prehistoric burial mounds, which suggests their use as a means of producing fire. Oct 09, 2020, New Minerals 

[26], In July 2020 scientists reported that they have transformed the abundant diamagnetic material into a ferromagnetic one by inducing voltage, which may lead to applications in devices such as solar cells or magnetic data storage. Whereas pyrite has S2 subunits, arsenopyrite has [AsS] units, formally derived from deprotonation of H2AsSH. [36] The polarisation can be calculated on the basis of higher-order Madelung constants and has to be included in the calculation of the lattice energy by using a generalised Born–Haber cycle. - Dakota Matrix Minerals, Inc. New Minerals  It is distinguishable from native gold by its hardness, brittleness and crystal form. Large pyritohedron to 2cm with micro white Calcite and deep red sphalerite. of stoichiometric iron pyrite FeS2 amounts to 541.87 pm. The mineral pyrite , or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron (II) disulfide). [10], By Georgius Agricola's time, c. 1550, the term had become a generic term for all of the sulfide minerals. For example, it can be produced by magmatic (molten rock) segregation, by hydrothermal solutions, and as stalactitic growth. Pyrite was once used as a source of sulfur, but is now only a minor ore for both sulfur and iron. Sulfate released from decomposing pyrite combines with water, producing sulfuric acid, leading to acid mine drainage.

Pyrite is the most abundant sulfide mineral.

[45] In early 2009, problems with Chinese drywall imported into the United States after Hurricane Katrina were attributed to pyrite oxidation, followed by microbial sulfate reduction which released hydrogen sulfide gas. Today, it is used as an ornamental stone, as well as a very popular stone for amateur collectors. The structure is simple cubic and was among the first crystal structures solved by X-ray diffraction. In contrast, molybdenite, MoS2, features isolated sulfide (S2−) centers and the oxidation state of molybdenum is Mo4+.

Historically, pyrite has been used to much more benefit than in modern times. The material is a semiconductor and the Fe ions should be considered to be in a low spin divalent state (as shown by Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as XPS), rather than a tetravalent state as the stoichiometry would suggest. Certain metal sulfides, such as those of zinc and copper, are contained in the ores of those metals. [24] At the time when the term became common in jewelry making, "marcasite" referred to all iron sulfides including pyrite, and not to the orthorhombic FeS2 mineral marcasite which is lighter in color, brittle and chemically unstable, and thus not suitable for jewelry making. The pyrite structure is also used by other compounds MX2 of transition metals M and chalcogens X = O, S, Se and Te. The mineral pyrite (/ˈpaɪraɪt/),[1] or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron (II) disulfide). The iron atoms in the faces are not equivalent by translation alone to the iron atoms at the corners.) Superb specimen with brassy golden Pyritohedrons to 5mm laced nicely with stacks of thin platy, pseudo-hexagonal, twinned crystals of Chalcocite crystals to 2mm across. [12] Despite being nicknamed fool's gold, pyrite is sometimes found in association with small quantities of gold. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. [32] The unit cell is composed of a Fe face-centered cubic sublattice into which the S2 ions are embedded.

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