[74] According to Harold Plenderleith, the surface removed in some places may have been as much as one-tenth of an inch (2.5 mm). Man Utd's expected 3-4-1-2 line-up vs PSG as Maguire and Cavani left at home, What going on Taskmaster taught me about comedians, Covid tier map shows the areas of England subject to each level of lockdown restrictions, How long is De Bruyne out for? Absentee Ballot vs. Mail-In Ballot: Is There A Difference? The friezes are part of a single work of art, thus it was unintended that fragments of this piece be scattered across different locations; Casts of the marbles would be just as able to demonstrate the cultural influences which Greek sculptures have had upon European art as would the original marbles, whereas the context with which the marbles belong cannot be replicated within the British Museum; A poll suggested that more British people (37%) supported the marbles' restoration to Greece than opposed it (23%), The conservation claims made by British authorities over the time Parthenon Marbles have been kept at the, The assertion that fulfilling all restitution claims would empty most of the world's great museums – this has also caused concerns among other European and American museums, with one potential target being the, The assertion that Modern Greeks have "no claim to the stones because you could see from their physiognomy that they were not descended from the men who had carved them," a quote attributed to, The assertion that Greece could mount no court case, because Elgin claims to have been granted permission by what was then Greece's ruling government and, 40% in favour of returning the marbles to Greece, 15% in favour of keeping them at the British Museum, Parthenon: 247 ft (75 m) of the original 524 ft (160 m), 17 pedimental figures, including a figure of a river-god, possibly the river, Temple of Athena Nike: 4 slabs of the frieze and architectural members, This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 20:39.

Further damage to the Parthenon's artwork occurred when the Venetian general Francesco Morosini looted the site of its larger sculptures.

The Elgin Marbles are a collection of classical Greek marble sculptures, inscriptions and architectural members that were mostly created by Phidias and his assistants. From 1801 to 1812, agents of Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed about half of the surviving sculptures of the Parthenon, as well as sculptures from the Propylaea and Erechtheum. On two earlier occasions, Elgin stated that the Ottomans gave him written permissions more than once, but that he had "retained none of them." By his own account, he was concerned about damage being done to important artworks in the temples of Greece, then under Ottoman sway. Both MORI poll results have been characterised by proponents of the return of the Marbles to Greece as representing a groundswell of public opinion supporting return, since the proportion explicitly supporting return to Greece significantly exceeds the number who are explicitly in favour of keeping the Marbles at the British Museum.[117][119]. Published 1896 Macmillan; Paterakis AB. Thus, according to Rudenstine, "Hunt put himself in a position in which he could simultaneously vouch for the authenticity of the document and explain why he alone had a copy of it fifteen years after he surrendered the original to Ottoman officials in Athens". Celui-ci réclamait le droit d'entrer dans la citadelle et de dessiner et mouler les temples ; le droit d'ériger des échafaudages et de creuser partout où ils souhaiteraient découvrir les anciennes fondations ; le droit d'emmener toute sculpture ou inscription qui ne soit pas comprise dans les fortifications de la citadelle[2]. [31] Elgin intended to use the marbles to decorate Broomhall House, his private home near Dunfermline in Scotland,[32] but a costly divorce suit forced him to sell them to settle his debts. En effet, la différence entre « creuser et emmener » ou « emmener et creuser » semblait minime.

The objects were removed from the Parthenon at Athens and from other ancient buildings and shipped to England by arrangement of Thomas Bruce, 7th Lord Elgin, who was British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1799–1803). If you are still wondering ‘what are the Elgin marbles’, that comes next! anniversary. As the Parthenon lay in ruins, Greece remained under Ottoman rule. Fearing that they would eventually be destroyed because of Turkish indifference, he asked permission of the Sublime Porte to have artists measure, sketch, and copy important pieces of sculpture and architectural detail for posterity. Here's what we know about Man City star's problem, Boiling a litre of water in a plastic kettle 'releases 10m microplastics into tea and coffee'.

My name is Marcia Welch and I am a traveller from New Zealand.

'The committee permission' had convened to examine a request by Elgin asking the British government to purchase the Marbles. This time the incentive was provided by the construction of a new Gallery to house the collection. A nobleman saved them 200-odd years ago if you … William St. Clair, a contemporary biographer of Lord Elgin, said he possessed Hunt's Italian document and "vouches for the accuracy of the English translation".

Cet ensemble de sculptures, comprenant l'essentiel de la frise, des frontons et des métopes du Parthénon, constitue l'une des pièces maîtresses du British Museum. [29], In November 1798 the Earl of Elgin was appointed as "Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty to the Sublime Porte of Selim III, Sultan of Turkey" (Greece was then part of the Ottoman Empire). It would not be until the beginning of the 19th century that the fate of its precious marble remains would be sealed. ), Elgin was a lover of art and antiquities. To answer the question ‘what are the Elgin marbles’ you must first learn who Lord Elgin was. So, what are the Elgin marbles and why are they so famous? During the first siege the besieged Ottoman forces attempted to melt the lead in the columns to cast bullets, even prompting the Greeks to offer their own bullets to the Ottomans in order to minimize damage.

Nonetheless, he claimed that the prime cause for the damage inflicted upon the marbles was the 2000-year-long weathering on the Acropolis. [59], The Erechtheion was used as a munitions store by the Ottomans during the Greek War of Independence[60] (1821–1833) which ended the 355-year Ottoman rule of Athens. In particular, an explosion ignited by Venetian gun and cannon-fire bombardment in 1687, whilst the Parthenon was used as a munitions store during the Ottoman rule, destroyed or damaged many pieces of Parthenon art, including some of that later taken by Lord Elgin. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Les Marbles ont été transportés par voie maritime en Grande - Bretagne. [42] Rudenstine's argumentation is partly based on a translation discrepancy he noticed between the surviving Italian document and the English text submitted by Hunt to the parliamentary committee. [108][109] It has been argued, however, that the case was not directly relevant to the Parthenon Marbles, as it was about a transfer of ownership, and not the loan of artefacts for public exhibition overseas, which is provided for in the 1963 Act. And once again thy hapless bosom gored, Or, il se trouvait en prison, arrêté, comme tous les Français résidant dans l'Empire Ottoman, dès le début de la campagne d'Égypte. [2][3] The collection is now on display in the British Museum, in the purpose-built Duveen Gallery. Updates? The defending Turks fortified the Acropolis and used the Parthenon as a castle. The Acropolis was at that time an Ottoman military fort, so Elgin required special permission to enter the site, the Parthenon, and the surrounding buildings. [7] The document was recorded in an appendix of an 1816 parliamentary committee report. Let us know your thoughts in the comments below. We Asked, You Answered. An outcry arose over the affair, and Elgin was assailed for rapacity, vandalism, and dishonesty in hauling the Grecian treasures to London. UK refuses to include Elgin marbles in Brexit trade talks ‘They are the legal responsibility of the British Museum,’ says Downing Street. Elgin marbles definition, a group of Greek sculptures of the 5th century b.c., originally on the Parthenon in Athens, and supposedly sculptured under the direction of Phidias: presently in the British Museum in London. Mark Ellingham, Tim Salmon, Marc Dubin, Natania Jansz, John Fisher, Greece: The Rough Guide, Rough Guides, 1992, Chester Charlton McCown, The Ladder of Progress in Palestine: A Story of Archaeological Adventure, Harper & Bros., 1943, p.2. Le texte du firman fut suggéré par le Chapelain de Lord Elgin, le révérend Hunt.

[85][86] Natural disasters have also affected the Parthenon. It was, it seems, fatal that a representative of our country loot those objects that the Turks and other barbarians had considered sacred.

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