Priscus, an envoy sent from Constantinople to Attila’s court, came face to face with the King, and observed that “he was a very wise counsellor, merciful to those who sought it and loyal to those he had accepted as friends”. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Attila-king-of-the-Huns, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Attila the Hun, Heritage History - Biography of Attila the Hun, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Attila, Attila - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In April of 2003 CE, however, a German team of archaeologists claimed to have discovered the Tomb of Gilgamesh precisely where the ancient texts said it was. The influx of the Visigoths, in particular, and their later revolt against Rome, is considered a significant contributor to Rome's fall. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The gold and silver symbolized the plunder that Attila had seized while the harsh gray iron recalled his victories in war (6). Hun warriors who crossed the Balkans on their way to Constantinople in 441 could have watered their horses in the Loire in 451, and then the next year bathed in the Po. Attila the Hun… The empire that Attila and his elder brother Bleda inherited seems to have stretched from the Alps and the Baltic in the west to somewhere near the Caspian Sea in the east. He rejoiced at this gift and, being ambitious, thought he had been appointed ruler of the whole world, and that through the sword of Mars supremacy in all wars was assured to him. History tells us that the catalyst was the letter from Honoria (detailed above).
Attila’s movements after the conclusion of peace in the autumn of 443 are unknown. Attila becomes joint ruler with his brother Bleda Many legends surround the campaign that followed.
Attila the Hun (c406–453) was the leader of the ancient nomadic people known as the Huns from 434 to 453 AD and ruler of the Hunnic Empire. It was close, but the Huns were beaten. His cup too was of wood, whilst the visitors drank from goblets of gold. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. You have successfully linked your account! Their offensive was all the more successful because it was completely unexpected. Whatever the reason, allowing Attila to go free would ultimately prove to be a costly mistake. Attila's memory, however, lives on as one of the greatest military leaders of all time. Cite This Work Arguably, it was this that cemented the status of the papacy and ended the secular supremacy of the emperors. In fact, ‘Attila’ may not have been his real name, for ‘Ata-ila’ may be translated as ‘Little-Father’, akin perhaps to the title ‘Atatürk’ (the ‘Father of the Turks’) later given to Mustafa Kemal, first president of Turkey. Once Attila rose to power, the first thing he did was negotiate a (short-lived) peace with the Romans.
The three years following the invasion were filled with complicated negotiations between Attila and the diplomats of the Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius II. Invention or adaptation: what did the Romans really do for us? 7 famous Victorians: from Brontë to Brunel, Catherine of Aragon: Henry’s greatest queen. We don’t know how Bleda and Attila got on, but they seem to have at least tolerated each other, successfully co-ruling for over a decade. The split grew after each half acquired its own emperor in 364. Last modified March 19, 2018. Knowing that Attila had plans to invade Gaul, she sent off a loyal eunuch, Hyacinthus, to Attila, asking him to rescue her from a loathsome marriage, promising cash. Lanning comments on this, writing: Attila and his brother valued agreements little and peace even less. By the mid-fifth century, Attila had created an empire that reached from the Baltic to the Balkans, from the Rhine to the Black Sea. Durant writes, All Gaul was terrified; here was no civilized warrior like Caesar, no Christian... this was the awful and hideous Hun, the flagellum dei [Scourge of God], come to punish Christian and pagan alike for the enormous distance between their professions and their lives. Attila, byname Flagellum Dei (Latin: “Scourge of God”), (died 453), king of the Huns from 434 to 453 (ruling jointly with his elder brother Bleda until 445). Lanning writes: Relying on mobility and shock effect, Attila rarely committed his soldiers to close, sustained combat. The official website for BBC History Magazine, BBC History Revealed and BBC World Histories Magazine, Attila the Hun, later branded as “the scourge of God”, is one of history’s most infamous characters, standing as the ultimate barbarian.
In 451 CE he began his conquests with an army of probably about 200,000 men, although sources, such as Jordanes, set the number higher at half a million. Born into Hunnic aristocracy early in the fifth century, Attila and his elder brother Bleda were nephews of King Rugila. He was also a successful crime lord, extorting money from his enemies with a ruthlessness that exceeded any later mafia don, says Miles Russell.
The brothers ruled jointly - each in control of their own regions and populace - and, as Lanning notes, frequently dealt with the Eastern Roman Empire, who formerly had paid the Huns as mercenaries to take care of the other tribes harassing Rome's boundaries, but now found they were paying to keep the Huns from invading. Further, that victory encouraged the Huns to join the Visigoths (their former adversaries) in plundering Roman territories.
Even though the two men were on opposing sides, they evidently had great respect for one another. Theodosius II, realizing he was defeated but unwilling to admit total defeat, asked for terms; the sum Rome now had to pay to keep the Huns from further destruction was more than tripled. The desertion of the frustrated Visigoths allowed Attila to withdraw his army from the battlefield, and with his wagons of booty intact. They were just so fierce that it was natural for them to go around hitting people. In 378, they joined Goths to destroy a Roman army at Adrianople (present-day Edirne, in Turkey). He remains to this day one of the most interesting and engaging figures from ancient history, and his name is still associated with the concept of an unstoppable force. Their qualities are Attila’s: devious, ruthless, scary, mercurial, sometimes charming, good at finding yes-men to do their bidding, and never master of the events they unleash. According to Kelly, "these, too, were honorable deaths", in that they were part of the funeral honors for the great warrior who had brought his followers so far and accomplished so much for them. The death of Attila the Hun was an important high point in the waning days of the Roman Empire and how he died is something of a mystery.
Historian Will Durant (following the descriptions from ancient accounts like those of Priscus) writes of Attila: He differed from the other barbarian conquerors in trusting to cunning more than to force. On the morning of 20 June 451, both sides clashed on the Catalaunian Plains, near Troyes, northeast France. Attila and Bleda together brokered the Treaty of Margus with Rome in 439 CE. Author of. Then followed a day of grief, feasting, and funeral games; a combination of celebration and lamentation that had a long history in the ancient world. Theodosius swiftly capitulated, immediately agreeing to settle arrears and restart payment, Attila raising the annual sum to 2,100lb of gold. Attila was a brilliant horseman & military leader, & HE held his. Attila’s death deprived the Huns of a great and charismatic leader. They claimed the Romans had violated the Margus treaty by not sending back all the Hun refugees in Roman territory and, further, claimed that a Roman bishop had made a secret trip into Hun territory to desecrate Hun graves and steal valuable grave goods - and they wanted this bishop turned over to them. His body was encased in three coffins; the innermost covered in gold, a second in silver, and a third in iron. That night, far beyond the frontiers of the Roman empire, Attila was buried. With the Roman troops who once guarded the border now deployed to Sicily, the Huns saw an opportunity for easy plunder.
So why his fearsome reputation? Attila had many wives, but scorned that mixture of monogamy and debauchery which was popular in some circles of Ravenna and Rome. Theodosius sent his general Flavius Aspar to try to negotiate with Attila and Bleda, but it was no use. Treasure-seekers still dream of finding a tomb filled with treasures, and a gold-silver-and-iron coffin. At its height, this empire stretched from central Asia across to modern-day France and down through the Danube Valley. Their first known action on becoming joint rulers was the negotiation of a peace treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire, which was concluded at the city of Margus (Požarevac). Upon seeing this, the satanic Attila recoils in abject terror. But the famine and pestilence raging in Italy in that year compelled the Huns to leave without crossing the Apennines. The Huns were different, being highly mobile and, for the Romans, who had little contact with the Asian Steppe, of unusual Worse, from a Roman perspective, they were unrepentantly pagan, displaying little desire to settle down and behave. The entire army fell into intense grief over the loss of their leader. They chose wisely, in that Attila's forces avoided the lagoons and marched on toward more attractive grounds. Yet given what he achieved, it is hard to understand why, says John Man. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Among the "heathen superstitions" Durant notes is the war sword Attila carried, which he claimed was left for him by the Roman god of war, Mars. There seems to be a problem, please try again. According to the historians, Attila was, though of an irritable, blustering, and truculent disposition, a very persistent negotiator and by no means pitiless. For several days the Huns did not move from their encampment, but their archers succeeded in keeping the Romans at bay. To keep his restless chieftains happy, he needed loot. After fierce fighting, in which the Visigothic king was killed, Attila withdrew and shortly afterward retired from Gaul. Attila's incursions into the regions of Germania drove the populations across the borders of the Western Roman Empire and contributed to its decline in the late 5th century CE. This barbarian threat intensified when the Huns, with their very different Turkish roots, emerged from what is now the Ukraine. He was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. Mindful of the effect that Roman luxuries could have on his people, Attila tightly controlled all movement across the frontier.
Attila the Hun (r. 434-453 CE) was the leader of the ancient nomadic people known as the Huns and ruler of the Hunnic Empire, which he established. So in 450 he conceived the idea of turning on the west.